Testicular inflammation (orchitis)
Various generalized infections such as typhus, brucellosis, tuberculosis and syphilis may be associated with testicular inflammation. The most common form is mumps orchitis associated with inflammation of the parotid gland. It is the most common complication of parotitis in adults and is bilateral in 30% of cases and may result in a decrease in testical size (testicular atrophy) which can be associated with irreversible infertility. There is no effective causal or prophylactic treatment of the testicular atrophy. Corticosteroics or oxyphenbutazone cannot prevent the irreversible sterility. Immune serum does not work. Currently trials with alpha interferon to prevent the testicular atrophy are running with promising results until now.